CS Foundation Overview

CS Foundation Subjects are Business Environment & Entrepreneurship, Business Management, Ethics and Communication, Business Economics and Fundamentals of Accounting and Auditing. The course provided by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (I.C.S.I) is a mixture of postal tuition and optional coaching classes.

  • An in-house legal expert; a compliance officer of the Company.
  • An expert in corporate laws, securities laws & capital market and corporate governance
  • Chief advisor to the board of directors on best practices in corporate  governance
  • Responsible for all regulatory compliances of company
  • Corporate planner and strategic manager.

Students are allowed to enroll for CS Foundation before passing 12th exams. But, in this case, the student shall provide the proof of passing the examination to ICSI within 6 months enrollment, otherwise, the admission is canceled. The initial duration of foundation program is 8 months.

  • Secretary’s Certificate: Lending.
  • Secretary’s Certificate: Mergers & Acquisitions.
  • Omnibus Secretary’s Certificate: Lending.
  • Certificate of the Company’s Secretary: Public Debt Offerings.
  • Certificate of the Company’s Secretary: Public Equity Offerings.

CS Foundation  Course Syllabus 

Syllabus :



Business Environment

  • Introduction and Features
  • Concepts of Vision & Mission Statements
  • Types of Environment:
  • Internal to the Enterprise
  • Value System, Management Structure and Nature, Human Resource, Company Image and Brand Value, Physical Assets, Facilities, Research & Development, Intangibles, Competitive Advantage
  • External to the Enterprise
    • Micro: Suppliers, Customers, Market Intermediaries
    • Macro: Demography, Natural, Legal & Political, Technological, Economy, Competition, Socio-Cultural and International
  • Business Environment with reference to Global Integration

Forms of Business Organization

  • Sole Proprietorship
  • Partnership
  • Company
  • Statutory Bodies and Corporations
  • HUF and Family Business
  • Cooperatives, Societies and Trusts
  • Limited Liability Partnership
  • Other Forms of Organisations

Scales of Business

  • Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  • Large Scale Enterprises and Public Enterprises
  • MNCs

Emerging Trends in Business Concepts, Advantages and Limitations

  • Network Marketing
  • Franchising
  • Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
  • E-Commerce
  • M-Commerce

Business Functions

  • Strategic: Planning, Budgetary Control, R&D, Location of a Business, Factors affecting location, Decision Making and Government Policy
  • Supply Chain: Objectives, Importance, Limitations, Steps, Various Production Processes
  • Finance: Nature, Scope, Significance of Financial Management, Financial Planning (Management Decisions – Sources of Funds, Investments of Funds, Distribution of Profits)
  • Marketing: Concept, Difference between Marketing and Selling, Marketing Mix, Functions of Marketing
  • Human Resources: Nature, Objectives, Significance
  • Services: Legal, Secretarial, Accounting, Administration, Information and Communication Technology



Introduction to Law

  • Meaning of Law and its Significance; Relevance of Law to Modern Civilized Society; Sources of Law; Legal Terminology and Maxims; Understanding Citation of Cases

Elements of Company Law

  • Meaning and Nature of Company; Promotion and Incorporation of a Company; Familiarization with the Concept of Board of Directors, Shareholders and Company Meetings; Company Secretary; E-Governance

Elements of Law relating to Partnership

  • Nature of Partnership and Similar Organisations – Co-Ownership, HUF; Partnership Deed; Rights and Liabilities of Partners: New Admitted, Retiring and Deceased Partners; Implied Authority of Partners and its Scope; Registration of Firms; Dissolution of Firms and Partnership

Elements of Law relating to Contract

  • Contract – Meaning; Essentials of a Valid Contract; Nature and Performance of Contract; Termination and Discharge of Contract; Indemnity and Guarantee; Bailment and Pledge; Law of Agency

Elements of Law relating to Sale of Goods

  • Essentials of a Contract of Sale; Sale Distinguished from Agreement to Sell, Bailment, Contract for Work and Labour and Hire-Purchase; Conditions and Warranties; Transfer of Title by Non-Owners; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Performance of the Contract of Sale; Rights of Unpaid Seller

Elements of Law relating to Negotiable Instruments

  • Definition of a Negotiable Instrument; Instruments Negotiable by Law and by Custom; Types of Negotiable Instruments; Parties to a Negotiable Instrument – Duties, Rights, Liabilities and Discharge; Material Alteration; Crossing of Cheques; Payment and Collection of Cheques and Demand Drafts; Presumption of Law as to Negotiable Instruments



  • Introduction to Concept of Entrepreneurship, Traits of Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship: Who is an Entrepreneur, Why Entrepreneurship
  • Types of Entrepreneurs – Idealist, Optimizer, Hard Worker, Sustainer, Improver, Advisor, Superstar, Artist, Visionary, Analyst, Fireball, Juggler, Hero, Healer
  • Distinction Between Entrepreneur and Manager
  • Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship: Definition, Features, Examples and Difference

Entrepreneurship – Creativity and Innovation

  • Entrepreneurial Venture Initiation: Sensing Entrepreneurial Opportunities, Environment Scanning, Market Assessment
  • Assessment of Business Opportunities: Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunities, Selection of an Enterprise, Steps in setting up of an Enterprise
  • Entrepreneurial Motivation: Meaning and Concept, Process of Achievement Motivation, Self-efficacy, Creativity, Risk Taking, Leadership, Communication and Influencing Ability, Mentoring and Planning Action
  • Developing Effective Business Plan

Growth & Challenges of Entrepreneurial Venture

  • Strategic Planning for Emerging Venture: Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Contemporary Business Environment
  • Financing the Entrepreneurial Business: Resource Assessment— Financial and Non-Financial, Fixed and Working Capital Requirement, Funds Flow, Sources and Means of Finance
  • Managing the Growing Business: Effecting Change, Modernization, Expansion, and Diversification




  • Nature of Management and its Process
  • Planning
  • Organisation
  • Human Resource Management
  • Direction and Coordination
  • Controlling
  • Recent Trends in Management
  • Change Management
  • Crisis Management
  • Total Quality Management
  • Risk Management
  • Global Practices


Business Ethics

  • Genesis, Concepts, Elements, Ethics in Business
  • Challenges of Business Ethics and Corporate Leadership
  • Ethical Principles in Business – Indian Perspective


Business Communication

  • Concept, Features, Importance, Limitations; Means of Communication — Written, Oral, Visual, Audio-Visual
  • Principles and Essentials of Business Communication
  • Process of Communication
  • Barriers to Communication

Essentials of Good English

  • Grammar and Usage; Enriching Vocabulary, Words – Multiple Meaning, Single Word for a Group of Words – Choice of Words – Words Frequently Mis-spelt; Punctuations, Prefix and Suffix; Parts of Speech; Articles; Synonyms and Antonyms; Tenses; Idioms and Phrases; Foreign Words and Phrases commonly used; Abbreviations and Numerals; Pronunciation. Latin, French and Roman words which are used in abbreviated form like “e.g., RSVP, viz. etc.”

Business Correspondence

  • Human Resource: Preparation of Resume, Job application, Drafting of Interview Letters, Call Letters and Offer of Appointment, Provisional and Final Appointment Orders; Goodwill Messages, Condolence Letters
  • Purchase: Requests for Quotations, Tenders, Samples and Drawings; Purchase Order, Order Acceptance, Complaints and Follow-Up
  • Sales: Drafting of Sales Letters, Circulars, Preparation of Sale Notes, Sales Reports, Sales Promotion Matters, Customers’ Correspondence – Regarding Dues, Follow-up Letters
  • Accounts: Correspondence with Various Agencies; Banks – Regarding OverDrafts, Cash Credits and Account Current, Insurance Companies – Regarding Payment, Renewal of Insurance Premium, Claims and their Settlement
  • Secretarial: Correspondence with Shareholders and Debenture-Holders Pertaining to Dividend and Interest, Transfer and Transmission, Stock Exchanges, Registrar of Companies and Various Authorities like Reserve Bank of India, SEBI
  • Introduction to Preparation of Agenda and Minutes for Meetings


  • Drafting of Messages; Messages through Electronic Media; Public Notices and Invitations; Representations to Trade Associations, Chambers of Commerce and Public Authorities

Interdepartmental Communication

  • Internal Memos; Office Circulars; Office Orders; Office Notes; Representation to Chief Executive and Replies thereto; Communication with Regional/Branch Offices
  • Preparation of Press Releases
  • E-Correspondence



Nature and Scope of Economics

  • Economics: Definition, Nature and Scope; Micro and Macro Economics; Positive and Normative Economics; Central Problems of an Economy; Production Possibility Curve and Opportunity Cost; Working of Economic Systems (Capitalistic Economy, Socialistic Economy, Mixed Economy); Economic Cycles; Inflation and Recession

Theory of Demand and Supply

  • Utility Analysis – Total Utility and Marginal Utility; Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility; Law of Equi-Marginal Utility; Consumers’ Equilibrium; Law of Demand & Elasticity of Demand; Law of Supply & Elasticity of Supply; Demand and Supply Equilibrium; Theory of Consumer’s Behaviour – Marshallian Approach and Indifference Curve Approach

Theory of Production, Costs and Revenue

  • Meaning and Factors of Production; Returns to Factor and Returns to Scale; Cost Concepts and Cost Curves; Revenue Concepts and Revenue Curves; Producers’ Equilibrium

Forms of Markets and its Equilibrium

  • Forms of Markets – Meaning and Characteristics
  • Price and Output Determination – Equilibrium for Firm and Industry under
  • Perfect Competition
  • Monopoly
  • Monopolistic Competition

Money and Banking

  • Concept of Money – Functions; Quantity Theory of Money; Credit Creation
  • Central Bank (Reserve Bank of India) – Role and Functions
  • Commercial Banks – Role and Functions
  • Monetary Policy in India

Basic Characteristics of Indian Economy

  • Development Initiatives through Five Year Plans
  • Agriculture
  • Causes of Low Productivity
  • Farm Size-Productivity Debate
  • Land Reforms: Meaning, Importance and Evaluation
  • Green Revolution and its Effects
  • Globalisation and Indian Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Development Policies and Experience
  • Industrial Policy Resolutions
  • New Industrial Policy 1991

Selected Areas of Indian Economy

  • Population – Size, Rate of Growth and its Implication for Growth
  • Poverty – Absolute and Relative Poverty and Main Programs for Poverty Alleviation
  • Unemployment – Types, Causes and Incidence of Unemployment
  • Infrastructure – Energy, Transportation, Communication, Health and Education


Statistics: An Overview

  • Definition and Functions of Statistic; Statistical Techniques Commonly used in Business Activities; Law of Statistics; Limitations of Statistics

Collection and Presentation of Statistical Data

  • Primary and Secondary Data; Classification and Tabulation of Data; Frequency Distribution of Data; Diagrams and Graphs

Measures of Central Tendency

  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Standard Deviation

Mathematics of Finance

  • Simple Interest
  • Compound Interest
  • Present Value & Future Value of an Annuity


  • Sample Spaces, Events and Probability
  • Set Theory: Union, Intersection, and Complement of Events
  • Conditional Probability, Intersection, and Expected Value
  • Random Variable, Probability Distribution, and Expectation

Index Numbers and Time Series Analysis

Familiarization with the concepts relating to Index Numbers and Time Series (Simple Numerical Problems)



Theoretical Framework

  • Meaning and Scope of Accounting; Accounting Concepts; Accounting Principles, Conventions and Standards – Concepts, Objectives, Benefits; Accounting Policies; Accounting as a Measurement Discipline – Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates

Accounting Process

  • Documents & Books of Accounts: Invoice, Vouchers, Debit & Credit Notes, Day Books, Journals, Ledgers and Trial Balance
  • Capital and Revenue: Expenditures and Receipts; Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities
  • Rectification of Errors

Bank Reconciliation Statement

  • Meaning; Causes of difference between Bank Book Balance and Balance as per Bank Pass Book / Bank Statement; Need of Bank Reconciliation Statement; Procedure for Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement

Depreciation Accounting

  • Methods, Computation and Accounting Treatment of Depreciation; Change in Depreciation Methods

Preparation of Final Accounts for Sole Proprietors

  • Preparation of Profit & Loss Account, Balance Sheet

Partnership Accounts

  • Goodwill
  • Nature of Goodwill and Factors affecting Goodwill
  • Methods of Valuation: Average Profit, Super Profit and Capitalization Methods
  • Treatment of Goodwill
  • Final Accounts of Partnership Firms
  • Admission of a Partner
  • Retirement/Death of a Partner
  • Dissolution of a Partnership Firm

Introduction to Company Accounts

  • Issue of Shares and Debentures; Forfeiture of Shares; Re-Issue of Forfeited Shares; Redemption of Preference Shares



  • Concepts and Objectives
  • Principles of Auditing
  • Types of Audit
  • Evidence in Auditing
  • Audit Programmes

Audits and Auditor’s Reports

  • Internal Audit
  • Statutory Auditor: Appointment, Qualification, Rights and Duties
  • Secretarial Audit: An Overview
  • Cost Audit: An Overview
  • Auditor’s Report: Meanings, Contents, Types, Qualifications

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